FHV may also cause: severe pharyngitis leading to anorexia; inflammation in the trachea; and coughing. The viruses associated with URIs are spread in three ways: All our advice is freely accessible to everyone, wherever you are in the world. In kittens over three or four weeks of age and in adult cats the virus causes a very severe gastroenteritis, following an incubation period of five to nine days. It is always advisable when selling a kitten to advise the purchaser that the kitten has had cat flu. H3N8 has an incubation period of 1 to 5 days, with clinical signs in most cases appearing 2 to 3 days after exposure. In rare cases, a much more severe and often fatal form of FCV infection may occur. It's known as the flu's incubation period, and "it's a big reason why the flu is so easily spread," Kathryn Boling, MD, a primary care physician at Baltimore's Mercy Medical Center, tells Health. Broad-spectrum antibiotic drops such as Chloromycetin or Chloropt improve clinical symptoms associated with conjunctivitis. first the cat will have symptoms that look like a cold, with sneezing, nasal congestion, fever and sometimes drooling Dr. Michele K. DVM. This virus does not survive in the environment for any length of time. Zivorax®, an anti-viral eye ointment, has been used with some success, but must be applied 6-8 times a day. The use of disinfectants on the kitten's bowl, bedding, etc is vital. Most kittens with flu are reluctant to eat, so nursing is the most important part of assisting with recovery. Kittens that are seriously ill with cat flu require intensive treatment and many that do recover are quite often left with recurring bronchitis. The main disadvantage a cat infected with cat flu has is that it becomes more susceptible to secondary infections. Herpes virus normally infects kittens prior to or immediately after birth and kittens usually shows symptoms from birth onward, although many symptoms appear at the 6-14 week age period when maternal immunity begins to wane. Interferons are proteins that are produced in the body, in part to help fight viral infections. Interestingly, only the wild type virus was identified; there was no evidence of mutant virus reactivation. Click Yes to help us continue to make these improvements. In fully susceptible kittens up to 4 weeks old, the extensive rhinotracheitis and an associated bronchopneumonia may be fatal. Antibiotics are indicated to treat secondary bacterial infections and to try to reduce the damage the infection causes. Lethargy 5. Always make sure that the food they are given is warmed (more palatable, and tasty) and that hand-feeding may be required to keep them eating. FCV, more genetically variant than FHV, is readily isolated by nasopharyngeal swabs in infected cats, and clinical signs usually involve gingivitis and lingual ulcers. There are some differences in clinical presentation between the two viruses, but these are not sufficient to be able to distinguish them … Cat Flu is a highly contagious disease which is most often found in multi-cat households, boarding and breeding catteries and rescue shelters - in fact any environment where there is a high-density cat population.. Feral cats are possibly at greatest risk.. Un-vaccinated cats, young kittens (i.e. FHV-1 and FCV are the main agents and are responsible for acute illness and may also be the cause of recurrent or chronic lesions[4]. It can take as long as two weeks for signs of flu to appear, so one reason for apparent vaccine “failures”, especially in kittens, may be that they are already infected at the time of vaccination. Analgesics may also be required. There are a number of topical antiviral agents that can help to manage FHV-associated ocular disease (such as trifluoridine, idoxuridine and cidofovir). Separate food bowls and litter trays must also be considered. However, if anorexia is severe your cat may require hospitalisation for your vet to provide food via a feeding tube. Most cats that recover from infection with URI viruses will become ‘carriers’. Clinical virology of the dog and cat. Typical risk factors include: Most cat URIs are caused by infection with one or both of the cat flu viruses: These two viruses are thought to be responsible for more than 90% of URIs in cats. Most cats infected with FCV remain carriers of the virus, and continue to shed the virus for a period of weeks or months after infection, but the majority (although not all) will eventually eliminate the virus within a few months. the time is takes from exposure to the disease to the appearance of the first signs) is about 14-days. There are some differences in clinical presentation between the two viruses, but these are not sufficient to be able to distinguish them simply from clinical signs: Although FCV and FHV are viral infections, secondary infection with bacteria is common and can contribute to rhinitis (infection in the nose) conjunctivitis, and even lung infections. Cats kept in large groups or colonies such as breeding catteries, rescue centres and feral cat colonies – in these situations the viruses are able to spread easily, Elderly and immunosuppressed cats (e.g., cats with. The symptoms of flu typically last about 3 to 7 … In households containing only one or two cats… Fever The severity of these signs varies considerably – in some cats the signs are very mild and transient, in others they may be very marked and severe. Antibiotics - broad spectrum antibiotics such as Amoxil®, Antirobe® or Clavulox®. Mucolytics - drugs which soften the mucous such as Mucohex® or Bisolvon® are often used in conjunction with antibiotics, but their effects are variable. During this entire time, the cat will potentially be infectious to other cats. Large amounts of virus are present in the saliva, tears and nasal discharges and the viruses may be able to survive in the environment and on objects for up to 2 (FHV) to 10 (FCV) days. Zithromax has shown to resolve symptoms in kittens suffering from flu symptoms. Triannual - every 3 years until 10 years. Please consider making a contribution, big or small, to keep our content free, accurate and relevant. Aug. 3, 2018. In the vast majority of cases, disease results from infection with feline calicivirus (FCV) or feline herpes virus (FHV, or FHV-1). Viral replication at these sites leads to a marked depletion of white blood cells. Richter M, Schudel L, Tobler K et al: Clinical, virological, and immunological parameters associated with super-infection of latently with FeHV-1 infected cats, https://www.vetbook.org/wiki/cat/index.php?title=Cat_Flu&oldid=27027. Once a cat is exposed to calicivirus, it will go through an incubation period of 2-6 days before developing clinical signs which typically last for 14-21 days. FCV may cause a transient arthritis (‘limping syndrome’), usually seen in young kittens, and in very young kittens can cause severe viral pneumonia. The incubation period for flu is about 3-5 days after your exposure. Nasal discharge 3. Once cat flu is suspected in a kitten, it is strongly advised to quarantine the cat until at least a week after symptoms have disappeared. The incubation period of canine influenza is approximately 2-to-4 days from initial exposure to the dog flu … After this, typical clinical signs develop which include: The severity of these signs varies considerably – in some cats the signs are very mild and transient, in others they may be very marked and severe. It is possible to confirm a diagnosis and to investigate which virus(es) are involved, but this is often not necessary. Adequate remuneration of out-of-pocket expenses for buyers of infected kittens is a moral requirement if a diagnosis of Herpes viral infection is made by a veterinarian. People can begin infecting others about one day before any … Although almost all cats infected with FHV will remain long-term carriers, many of these will never shed significant amounts of virus. In mild cases of the dry form, it may be possible to prolong the survival period, but most cats with the wet form of the disease die within two months of the onset of signs. According to the CDC, although the incubation period can range from one to four days, the typical incubation period is two days. To help prevent contraction make sure that your cat… If you think your cat has the flu… The recommended dose for cats is 75 mg orally once daily for adult cats. Sneezes from infected cats can project the virus metres, so direct contact isn’t always necessary for another cat to become infected. Inappetence 6. Sneezing 2. Treatment of URIs is largely symptomatic and supportive. Intestinal infections of Ancylostoma spp, Dipylidium caninum, and Toxocara cati are diagnosed more frequently in cats with upper respiratory tract disease[3]. Ocular discharge 4. Fortunately such infections are very rare (see: Feline calicivirus (FCV) infection). The first sign will be a watery discharge from one or both eyes; Eyes become … Most people with symptoms had them by day 12. More recently a drug used to treat human herpes virus infections – famciclovir – has been shown to be safe and effective in cats when given orally. Latest vaccine protocols recommend the following core vaccine schedule: A recent study has shown that vaccination of latently FHV-infected cats does not lead to reactivation of the latent virus, nor clinical disease. 3 Recommendations. Incubation period of the disease can be 8 weeks but up to several years. This is associated with particular strains of the virus that are highly virulent and termed ‘virulent systemic FCV’ (vsFCV) infection. A number of agents have been incriminated in the disease including, in order of clinical importance: All species of the family Felidae are believed to be susceptible. The incubation period (time from exposure to the virus until the development of clinical signs) of FIP can be a few days to months. Direct contact with an infected cat showing signs of URI, Direct contact with a carrier cat shedding virus. All cats and kittens must be vaccinated against cat flu from an early age (around 6 weeks). Some cats may also be left with permanent damage within the nose and may have persistent or recurrent nasal discharge (so-called ‘chronic rhinitis’). Thus, it was not clear that the mutant virus was able to establish latency. Using soft, highly aromatic foods (for example kitten foods, fish in oil) that are gently warmed will help to tempt an inappetent cat. General nursing is also essential – discharges from the eyes and nose should be gently wiped away using damp cotton wool, and the cat should be kept warm and comfortable. 'Cat flu' is one of the most common viral diseases of cats and responsible for half the visits to veterinarians by cat owners[1]. Mouth ulcers, coughing, excessive drooling of saliva and eye ulcers may also be seen. Herpes virus normally infects kittens prior to or immediately after birth and kittens usually shows symptoms from birth onward, although many symptoms appear at the 6-14 week age period when maternal immunity begins to wane. In catteries, catflu can be problematic in that carriers can be unwittingly sold to prospective buyers who alarmingly find symptoms of catflu emerging weeks or months after purchase. New arrivals to the group should be quarantined for 7-10 days in case they are developing cat ‘flu. Trigeminal ganglia are the site for FHV-1 latent infection and viral reactivation during a stress period[5]. This assumes that the breeder is made aware of the problem by the buyer within an acceptable period after sale (usually up to 4-6 weeks post-purchase). FHV infection tends to be more severe, often causing more marked conjunctivitis (eye infection and ocular discharge), and some ulceration of the cornea (the clear part at the front of the eye). Most breeders sell kittens with a ‘warranty’, covering part or all of any veterinary health expenses that can be attributed to preventable infectious (particularly herpes/calicivirus virus, Chlamydia, FIP) or hereditary diseases. The recommended dose is 80mg orally once or twice a week for 3-6 weeks, or until symptoms resolve. The incubation period (i.e. Your vet may want to do some additional tests if they are concerned about the extent of disease (e.g., the possibility of pneumonia) or if they are worried about complications (such as infection with FIV or FeLV). Cats with the herpes virus can suffer ongoing … Infections of cats over six months of age is likely to result in mild or subclinical infection. It can also cause eye infections (conjunctivitis and eosinophilic keratitis). After this, typical clinical signs develop which include: 1. And most of the other ill people were sick by day 14. Isolation of virus in clinically healthy cats is difficult. About half the cats presenting with respiratory disease have FHV, about one third have FCV and a few have Chlamydophila felis infection. In at risk cats, vaccination (using modified live vaccines) is most important to prevent this disease and it is important to ensure that Queens are fully vaccinated prior to mating to give the kittens the highest protection at birth from maternal antibodies. Clinically the disease caused by herpesvirus is very similar to that by calicivirus. Breeder obligations with 'cat flu' and kittens sold under 'warranty', Thiry, E (2006) Feline viral rhinotracheitis. The fact that the symptoms appear after sale does not exclude the breeder female cat as the origin of the infection, regardless of her immune or vaccine status. Mycoplasma is a very common organism in the environment, and it typically does take an underlying problem to have it cause disease. Although the viruses can be isolated by taking a nasal/oral swab and testing this at the lab, most vets normally treat symptomatically, assuming both viruses are involved. After an incubation period of 24-72 hours, there is a sudden onset of bouts of sneezing, coughing, profuse serous nasal and ocular discharges, frothy salivation, dyspnoea, anorexia, weight loss and fever. Influenza (flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. Pregnant queens may abort, although there is no evidence that the virus crosses the placenta and fatally infects foetuses, and virus has not been isolated from aborted foetuses or placenta. 'Carrier’ cats are a well recognised syndrome in catteries and is a problem that is difficult to eradicate. Clinical signs include sneezing, nasal discharge, conjunctivitis (inflammation of the lining of the eyes), ocular discharge, loss of appetite, fever and depression. Immune stimulants - Astragalus (a herb similar to echinacea and a proven immunostimulant in humans AIDS patients) is become more popular as an alternative immun-stimulant as shows promise in improving clinical symptoms associated with cat flu. FCV infection is often milder, with inapparent or less severe ocular signs, but FCV often causes ulceration of the tongue (and sometimes the palate or the lips). In rare cases, symptoms can show up after 14 days. Feline influenza or cat flu is one of the most common respiratory illnesses in the cat, and one that elderly cats, young kittens and cats with a compromised immune system are particularly susceptible to. Although mild doses of cat flu are not normally a problem, if the new owner is considering showing the cat at a cat show, the risk of spread to other cats can be a problem. This period of time is known as the incubation period. Due to the incubation period should the 5 other cats be retested after 30 days? Cat flu symptoms are most likely to occur in puppies. Mild signs were observed in all cats. ... Cats will shed vaccine virus for 4 days from the nose and mouth after … Serious outcomes of flu infection can result in hospitalization or death. This page was last edited on 31 August 2011, at 23:08. Due to the often weak immune system of a very young dog, this disease can be fatal. It is not recommended that eye ointment containing corticosteroids be used as this often exacerbates the infection. Some people, such as older people, young children, and people with certain health conditions, are at high risk of serious flu … Typical ocular and nasal discharges of cat flu, Infection with feline herpes virus can cause serious eye damage. If the other cats … Feline herpes virus causes upper airways infection in young kittens, sneezing and bronchitis. At a minimum, infected cats … Contact with virus carried on clothing, food bowls and other objects. pp:91-97. Testing for FCV or FHV involves collecting a mouth or eye swab which is then sent to a specialised veterinary laboratory. Cat flu, or upper respiratory infection (URI) is a very common disease that can vary considerably in severity, and on occasions can even be life-threatening. How long does it Last Incubation - exposure to showing signs -period is about 5-7 days The illness phase will last 7-10 days if treated, longer if not treated, and may even become a life long issue While most cats will recover from URIs, on occasions they can be life-threatening, and with severe infections the recovery may take several weeks. Kittens placed in a steaming bathroom while the owner showers have shown to ease breathing in severely dyspnoeic kittens. Abortion is thought to be secondary to fever and anorexia. Because the virus can be spread from nasal discharges and sneezing, isolating the sick cat is important - perhaps housing it in a separate room altogether. kittens under a year) and geriatric cats … Support International Cat Care from as little £3, Sign up to our monthly newsletter and free e-magazine Intelligent Cat Care, Reg Charity 1117342 (England and Wales) Place Farm, Chilmark Road, Tisbury, Wiltshire, SP3 6LW. Eye ointments are commonly used when conjunctivitis is present. The clinical importance of catflu is not the initial illness, which usually responds to broad-spectrum antibiotics, but the insidious long-term complications of FHV infection. Sept. 15, 2009 (San Francisco) -- Some swine flu patients are still infected with H1N1 virus that they can transmit to other people eight to 10 days after their symptoms strike, researchers say. Here the virus can be identified through culturing or by a PCR test (a molecular test to show the presence of the viral genes). 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