To many people, WASP now includes most 'white' people who are not ... members of any minority group. He was well known at the time for his portrayal of Abraham Lincoln; now he is a disfigured monster, and Gunter suggests a link between Lincoln and American atrocities. However, more recently Canadian scholars have traced the decline of the WASP elite. [73], A significant shift of American economic activity toward the Sun Belt during the latter part of the 20th century, and an increasingly globalized economy have also contributed to the decline in power held by Northeastern WASPs. [45] Overall, 84.2% of all the Nobel Prizes awarded to Americans in Chemistry,[45] 60% in Medicine,[45] and 58.6% in Physics[45] between 1901 and 1972 were won by Protestants. By the 1990s there were "roughly the same proportion of WASPs, Catholics, and Jews at the elite levels of the federal civil service, and a greater proportion of Jewish and Catholic elites among corporate lawyers. [38], Expensive, private prep schools and universities have historically been associated with WASPs. Catholic politicians were often the target of WASP political hostility. [39] Episcopalians and Presbyterians also tend to be considerably wealthier[40] and better educated than most other religious groups,[41] and they are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and law. In the ensuing furor, the president's wife Eleanor Roosevelt publicly resigned from the DAR and arranged for Anderson to sing at the Lincoln Memorial before a cheering crowd of 75,000. agree that the group's influence has waned since the end of World War II in 1945, with the growing influence of other ethnic groups. [68], Two famous confrontations signifying a decline in WASP dominance were the 1952 Senate election in Massachusetts where John F. Kennedy, a Catholic of Irish descent, defeated WASP Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.,[69] and the 1964 challenge by Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater—an Episcopalian[70] who had solid WASP credentials through his mother but whose father was Jewish and was seen by some as part of the Jewish community[71]—to Nelson Rockefeller and the Eastern Republican establishment,[72] which led to the liberal Rockefeller Republican wing of the party being marginalized by the 1980s, overwhelmed by the dominance of Southern and Western conservatives. [3] The term is also used in Australia and Canada for similar elites. The Founding Fathers of the United States were mostly educated, well-to-do, of British ancestry, and Protestants. Bush, elected in 1988, his son George W. Bush, elected in 2000 and 2004, and John McCain, who was nominated but defeated in 2008. Religion is repeatedly alluded to (one of the murdered old men is identified as having been a Baptist and a main character is the daughter of the minister of the church next door, with some scenes taking place in its ancient graveyard). [31], Historian Charles J. Scalise, coined the term WIP ("White Italian Protestant") for Italian-Americans who convert to Protestantism. [35], Some of the WASPs Protestant denominations have the highest proportion of graduate and post-graduate degrees of any other denomination in the United States, such as the Episcopal Church (76%),[36] the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) (64%),[36] and the United Church of Christ (46%),[37][38] as well as the most of the American upper class. The first published mention of the term WASP was provided by political scientist Andrew Hacker in 1957, indicating WASP was already used as common terminology among American sociologists, though the "W" stands for "wealthy" rather than "white": They are 'WASPs'—in the cocktail party jargon of the sociologists. [74], In the 21st century, "WASP" is often a derogatory criticism based on snobbishness and exclusivity associated with the privilege, such as restrictive membership in private social clubs. While admission to these universities is generally based upon merit, there is a history of "legacy" admissions for the children of alumni. [47] More recent studies indicate a still-disproportionate, though somewhat reduced, influence of WASPs among economic elites. [68] Occasionally a writer praises the WASP contribution, as conservative historian Richard Brookhiser did in 1991 when said the "uptight, bland, and elitist" stereotype obscures the "classic WASP ideals of industry, public service, family duty, and conscience to revitalize the nation. [61] A number of popular jokes ridicule those thought to fit the stereotype. [65], Eric Kaufman argues that "the 1920s marked the high tide of WASP control. The Brewsters have delusions of grandeur. Kaufman (2004) p 220 citing Lerner et al. (1996), wealthiest and most affluent American families, "The decline of the WASP in the United States and Canada", "The Implosion of the WASPs–Er, White Protestants…", "American exceptionalism reconsidered: Anglo-saxon ethnogenesis in the "universal" nation, 1776–1850", "The Rise of the Anglo-Saxon: French Perceptions of the Anglo-American World in the Long Twentieth Century", "Essay: Are the WASPS Coming Back? The "W" and "P" were added in the 1950s to form a witty epithet with an undertone of "waspishness" (which means a person who is easily irritated and quick to take offense). WASP [wɒsp] ist ein Akronym für White Anglo-Saxon Protestant („weißer angelsächsischer Protestant“) und ein in der Regel abschätzig verwendeter Begriff für Angehörige der weißen protestantischen Mittel- und Oberschicht der Vereinigten Staaten, deren Vorfahren europäische Siedler in der Gründungszeit waren. The play appeared at a time of strong isolationist sentiment regarding European affairs. They are often referred to as the ‘old immigrants’. Of great importance, evangelical Protestantism still dominated the cultural scene. [50] The solution was the Social Register, which listed the names and addresses of about 1 percent of the population. These areas are often exclusive and associated with top schools, high incomes, well-established church communities, and high real-estate values. The term was p… Gurney, playwright who portrayed the fading WASP culture, dies at 86", "Whit Stillman's 'Metropolitan': An Oral History of the Preppiest, WASPiest, Wittiest Comedy of Heirs Ever", 35 Social Registers from major US cities early 20th century; online free, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=White_Anglo-Saxon_Protestants&oldid=1004541105, Articles with dead external links from January 2021, Wikipedia pages semi-protected from banned users, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2021, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from January 2021, Articles with failed verification from July 2018, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2018, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2018, Articles that may contain original research from July 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 February 2021, at 02:54. [16], Like the newer term "WASP," the old term "Anglo-Saxon" was used derisively by writers hostile to an informal alliance between Britain and the U.S. "[82][page needed], American films, including Annie Hall and Meet the Parents, have used the conflicts between WASP families and urban Jewish families for comedic effect. [7] People rarely call themselves WASPs, except humorously. If he is not a member of the Brewster family, he realizes he will not become insane or a murderer. "Anglo-Saxon", meaning in effect the whole Anglosphere, remains a term favored by the French, used disapprovingly in contexts such as criticism of the Special Relationship of close diplomatic relations between the US and Britain and complaints about perceived "Anglo-Saxon" cultural or political dominance. Mortimer's brother who lives with the two sisters believes that he is President Theodore Roosevelt. "[17] The term is also used in Australia and Canada for similar elites.[10][11][12][13]. Historically, "Anglo-Saxon" has been used for centuries to refer to the Anglo Saxon language of the inhabitants of England before 1066, and since the 19th century has been in common use to refer to all people of English descent. [18], Before WASP came into use in the 1960s, the term Anglo-Saxon served some of the same purposes. Information and translations of white anglo-saxon protestant in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. [30], Other analysts have argued that the extent of the decrease in WASP dominance has been overstated. "[67] The political scientist Theodore P. Wright, Jr., argues that while the Anglo ethnicity of the U.S. presidents from Richard Nixon through George W. Bush is evidence for the continued cultural dominance of WASPs, assimilation and social mobility, along with the ambiguity of the term, has led the WASP class to survive only by "incorporating other groups [so] that it is no longer the same group" that existed in the mid-20th century. "[50] According to the essayist Joseph Epstein, WASPs developed a style of understated quiet leadership. $22.95 — Paperback $22.95 1 New from $22.95 This book is published by Floricanto Press. He notes that the evil disfigured nephew was played by Raymond Massey. They resent us. The concept of Anglo-Saxonism and especially Anglo-Saxon Protestantism evolved in the late 19th century, especially among American Protestant missionaries eager to transform the world. [2], After 1945, Catholics and Jews made strong inroads in getting jobs in the federal civil service, which was once dominated by those from Protestant backgrounds, especially the Department of State. A famous confrontation was the 1952 Senate election in Massachusetts where John F. Kennedy, a Catholic of Irish descent, defeated WASP Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.. The concept of "Anglo Saxon" and especially "Anglo Saxon Protestantism" evolved in the late 19th century, especially among American Protestant missionaries eager to transform the world. Most were WASPs, and they included the families who mingled in the same private clubs, attended the right teas and cotillions, worshipped together at prestige churches, funded the proper charities, lived in exclusive neighborhoods, and sent their daughters to finishing schools[51] and their sons away to prep schools. [29], WASPs traditionally have been associated with Episcopal (or Anglican), Presbyterian, United Methodist, Congregationalist, and other mainline Protestant denominations; but the term has expanded to include other Protestant denominations. It remains in use in Ireland as a term for the British or English, and sometimes in Scottish Nationalist discourse. Irish-American humorist Finley Peter Dunne popularized the ridicule of "Anglo Saxon", even calling President Theodore Roosevelt one. In the Detroit area, WASPs dominated the wealth that came from the huge industrial capacity of the automotive industry. WASP elites dominated American society, culture, and politics for most of the history of the United States, maintaining a monopoly through intermarriage, inheritance, and nepotism . [9] The term is also used in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. "[19], In Australia, "Anglo" or "Anglo-Saxon" refers to people of English descent, while "Anglo-Celtic" expands to include people of Irish, Welsh and Scottish descent. WASP elites dominated American society, culture, and politics for most of the history of the United States, maintaining a monopoly through intermarriage, inheritance, and nepotism. American values bore the stamp of this Anglo-Saxon Protestant ascendancy. The term white Anglo-Saxon protestant is used to refer to all upper-class white American protestants, who are descendants of Noth-European origin. 30.07.2020 . [12], The term was popularized by sociologist and University of Pennsylvania professor E. Digby Baltzell, himself a WASP, in his 1964 book The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America. "[85], Filmmaker Whit Stillman, whose godfather was E. Digby Baltzell, has made films dealing primarily with WASP characters and subjects. [3][4][5] In some contexts (primarily American)[which?] [14] The W and P were added in the 1950s to form a humorous epithet to imply "waspishness" or someone likely to make sharp, slightly cruel remarks.[5]. [53] The solution was the Social Register, which listed the names and addresses of about 1 percent of the population. The leadership was well-known to the readers of newspaper society pages, but in larger cities it was hard to remember everyone, or to keep track of the new debutantes and marriages. [76][77] For the first time in U.S. history, after the 2010 retirement of John Paul Stevens (appointed 1975), the U.S. Supreme Court had no Protestant members, until the appointment of Neil Gorsuch in 2017. Catholic (or "white ethnic") politicians were often the target of WASP political hostility. [62][63], Catholics in the Northeast and the Midwest—mostly immigrants and their descendants from Ireland and Germany as well as southern and eastern Europe—came to dominate Democratic Party politics in big cities through the ward boss system. The two failed Republican nominees before Trump, John McCain and Mitt Romney, were … But the WASP culture, or at least that aspect of the culture I talk about, is enough in the past so that we can now look at it with some objectivity, smile at it, and even appreciate some of its values. [41][page needed], Members of Protestant denominations associated with WASPs have some of the highest proportions of graduate and post-graduate degrees of any religious denomination in the United States. Its day has passed. Stillman has been called the "WASP Woody Allen. [32], The WASP elite dominated much of politics and the economy, as well as the high culture, well into the 20th century. "WASP" in Frederick Ludowyk and Bruce Moore, eds, Allen, "WASP—From Sociological Concept to Epithet," (1975), Eric Kaufmann, "American exceptionalism reconsidered: Anglo-saxon ethnogenesis in the “universal” nation, 1776–1850.". The New York Times stated in 1997: Once, the Social Register was a juggernaut in New York social circles....Nowadays, however, with the waning of the WASP elite as a social and political force, the register's role as an arbiter of who counts and who doesn't is almost an anachronism. White Anglo-Saxon Protestant's (WASP's) - Why did God create W.A.S.P's? Roosevelt insisted he was Dutch. The former of which "England" and "English" is ultimately derived. [63] Goldwater himself had solid WASP credentials through his mother, but was instead seen as part of the Jewish community (despite having little association with it). After all, the Episcopal church is the official American version of the Church of England. Describing the class of Americans that held "national power in its economic, political, and social aspects", Hacker wrote: These 'old' Americans possess, for the most part, some common characteristics. The Bushes are the first ones who come to mind. The Wasps were one of the first group of immigrants who migrated to America during the 17 th and early 18 th century. They originally came from parts of … "[21], In Australia, Anglo or Anglo-Saxon refers to people of English descent, while Anglo-Celtic includes people of Irish, Welsh, and Scottish descent. [81] Occasionally, a writer praises the WASP contribution, as conservative historian Richard Brookhiser did in 1991 when he said the "uptight, bland, and elitist" stereotype obscures the "classic WASP ideals of industry, public service, family duty, and conscience to revitalize the nation. The White Anglo Saxon Protestants This was the first immigrant group to settle in America in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. [49], David Brooks, a columnist for The New York Times who attended an Episcopal prep school, writes that WASPs took pride in "good posture, genteel manners, personal hygiene, pointless discipline, the ability to sit still for long periods of time. Chabal, Emile., "The Rise of the Anglo-Saxon: French Perceptions of the Anglo-American World in the Long Twentieth Century". The negative connotation was especially common among Irish Americans and writers in France. „Es ist nicht, dass wir mehr Angelsachsen beko: 13 Antworten: WASP - White Anglo-Saxon-Protestants (US) Letzter Beitrag: 18 Jan. 10, 18:45: zu diesem Phänomen habe ich gleich zwei Fragen: Eine betrifft die Aussprache dieses Worts: Z… 10 Antworten They are both as WASP and as ITWITW as it gets. The "W" and "P" were added in the 1950s to form a witty epithet with an undertone of "waspishness" (which means a person who is easily irritated and quick to take offense).[11]. The revolution itself, a long time afterwards, found the base of its resistance in the then relatively Catholic leaning countries of Scotland and Ireland, adding further significance to the concept of the Anglo-Saxon elite existing in exclusion of an "Anglo-Celtic" one. White Anglo-Saxon Protestant. They think we're all Republicans, all superficial and all alcoholics. Although the social influence of wealthy WASPs has declined since the 1940s, the group continues to dominate some financial and philanthropic fields and politics. [73] However, asking "Is the WASP leader a dying breed? It also remains in use in Ireland as a term for the British or English, and sometimes in Scottish Nationalist discourse. [2], After World War II, Americans increasingly criticized the WASP hegemony and disparaged them as the epitome of "the Establishment". [23] The term is used with more nuance in discussions by French writers on French decline, especially as an alternative model to which France should aspire, how France should adjust to its two most prominent global competitors, and how it should deal with social and economic modernization.[24]. To many people, WASP now includes most 'white' people who are not ... members of any minority group. In 1800, Anglo-Saxons (I use the term somewhat broadly to include all English-speaking peoples) had increased to about 20,500,000, and now, in 1890, they number more than 120,000,000.[15]. [78], The play and film depict "old-stock British Americans," a decade before they were tagged as WASPS. Sociologists William Thompson and Joseph Hickey noted the expansion of the term's coverage beyond the academic community: The term WASP has many meanings. unesdoc.unesco.org Ce principe de répartition était admis dans la structure religieuse de l'enseignement, les Canadiens français In Chicagoland, white Protestants primarily reside in the North Shore suburbs, the Barrington area in the northwest suburbs, and in Oak Park and DuPage County in the western suburbs. [88], "WASP" redirects here. Examples include the Episcopal Church with 76% of those polled having some college and the Presbyterian Church with 64%.[42][43][44]. [34][page needed], Apart from Protestant English, German, Dutch, and Scandinavian Americans, other ethnic groups frequently included under the label of WASP include Americans of French Huguenot descent,[32] Scotch-Irish American,[35] or Scottish Americans,[36] Protestant Americans of Germanic Northwestern European descent,[37] and established Protestant American families of "vague" or "mixed" Germanic Northwestern European heritage. Since the 19th century it has been in common use in the English-speaking world, but not in Britain itself (in this context), to refer to Protestants of principally English descent. There was a closeness of family, a commitment to duty, to stoic responsibility, which I think we have to say weren't entirely bad. Georgetown University, a Catholic school, made a systematic effort to place graduates in diplomatic career tracks. We are led by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Sociologists William Thompson and Joseph Hickey described a further expansion of the term's meaning: The term WASP has many meanings. The accepted wisdom is that after World War II, the selection of individuals for leadership positions was increasingly based on factors such as motivation and training rather than ethnicity and social lineage.[68]. Although the social influence of wealthy WASPs has declined since the 1940s, the group continues to … [85] Gurney told the Washington Post in 1982: WASPs do have a culture – traditions, idiosyncrasies, quirks, particular signals and totems we pass on to one another. In the nineteenth century, Anglo-Saxons was often used as a synonym for all people of English descent and sometimes more generally, for all the English-speaking peoples of the world. Many reasons have been given for the decline of WASP power, and books have been written detailing it. WASP elites dominated American society, culture, and politics for most of the history of the United States, maintaining a monopoly through intermarriage, inheritance, and nepotism. By the 1980s, the liberal Rockefeller Republican wing of the party was marginalized, overwhelmed by the dominance of the Southern and Western conservative Republicans. According to Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United State by Harriet Zuckerman, between 1901 and 1972, 72% of American Nobel Prize Laureates have come from a Protestant background, while Protestants made up roughly 67% of the US population during that period. Since the 19th century, Anglo-Saxon has been in common use in the English-speaking world, but not in Britain itself, to refer to Protestants of principally English descent. It was not until after World War II that the power of the old Protestant establishment began to decline. White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (Wasps) and Mexicans Paperback – October 11, 2018 by Raoul Lowery Contreras (Author) See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. It was often used in claims for the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race, much to the annoyance of outsiders. [43] In recent decades, Republicans slightly outnumber Democrats.[44]. In 1893, Strong envisioned a future "new era" of triumphant Anglo-Saxonism: Is it not reasonable to believe that this race is destined to dispossess many weaker ones, assimilate others, and mould the remainder until... it has Anglo-Saxonized mankind? Breaking News. For example, Josiah Strong boasted in 1890: In 1700 this race numbered less than 6,000,000 souls. [28] The popular usage of the term has sometimes expanded to include not just elites but also people of other Protestant European origin. Some of the most prominent (either a "majority" or sizable percentage) WASP communities are: In 2007, the New York Times reported that there was a rising interest in the WASP culture. Definition of white anglo-saxon protestant in the Definitions.net dictionary. White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) is an informal, sometimes disparaging term for a closed social group of high-status and influential white Americans of British Protestant ancestry who control disproportionate financial, political and social power in the United States. Native or born overseas, they were of British stock and of the Protestant faith. Of great importance, evangelical Protestantism still dominated the cultural scene. It was often used in implying superiority, much to the annoyance of outsiders. [78], The University of California, Berkeley, once a WASP stronghold, has changed radically: only 30% of its undergraduates in 2007 were of European origin (including WASPs and all other Europeans), and 63% of undergraduates at the University were from immigrant families (where at least one parent was an immigrant), especially Asian. The Brewster family is so eminently respectable that the Irish police reject the idea that there could be 13 murder victims buried in the basement. [46], Episcopalians and Presbyterians are among the wealthiest religious groups and are disproportionately represented in American business, law, and politics. it is considered a slur[6][7][8], Sociologists sometimes use the term to broadly include all Protestant Americans of Northern European or Northwestern European ancestry, regardless of whether they have British ancestry. [19] "To be genuinely Irish is to challenge WASP dominance", argues California politician Tom Hayden. [22], Outside of Anglophone countries the term "Anglo-Saxon" and its translations are used to refer to the Anglophone peoples and societies of Britain, the United States, and other countries such as Australia, Canada and New Zealand. For other uses, see, Kaufmann (2004), p. 220 citing Lerner et al. Neighborhoods and cities with large populations of WASPs are oftentimes the most sought after neighborhoods of the city. Historian Richard Kyle says: Protestantism had not yet split into two mutually hostile camps – the liberals and fundamentalists. "[59], By the 1980s, brands such as Lacoste, Ralph Lauren and Vineyard Vines and their logos became associated with the preppy fashion style which was associated with WASP culture. The sisters see themselves as philanthropists who help lonely old men. [11], A number of analysts have suggested that WASP dominance of the institutional order has become a thing of the past. Scholars supporting this idea[who?] Historically, "Anglo-Saxon" referred to the Anglo Saxon language(today called "Old English") of the inhabitants of England and the Scottish lowlands before about 1150. White-Anglo Saxon Protestants This was the first immigrant group to settle in America in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Most were WASPs, and they included families who mingled at the same private clubs, attended the right teas and cotillions, worshipped together at prestige churches, funded the proper charities, lived in exclusive neighborhoods, and sent their daughters to finishing schools[54] and their sons away to prep schools. The political, cultural, religious, and intellectual leaders of the nation were largely of a Northern European Protestant stock, and they propagated public morals compatible with their background. These areas are largely exclusive and upper class with top private and public schools, high family incomes, well established Christian church communities, and with high real estate values.[56]. Variations include the German: "Angelsachsen",[23] French: "le modèle anglo-saxon,"[24] Spanish: "anglosajón",[25] Dutch: "Angelsaksisch model",[26] and Italian: "Paesi anglosassoni. [13] Numbers of the wealthiest and most affluent American families ("Old Money"), such as the Vanderbilts and Astors, Rockefeller, who were Baptists, Du Pont, Roosevelt, Forbes, Whitneys, the Morgans and Harrimans are Episcopalian and Presbyterian families. [17] "To be genuinely Irish is to challenge WASP dominance," argues California politician Tom Hayden. An earlier usage appeared in the African-American newspaper The New York Amsterdam News in 1948, when author Stetson Kennedy wrote: In America, we find the WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) ganging up to take their frustrations out on whatever minority group happens to be handy — whether Negro, Catholic, Jewish, Japanese or whatnot. Peter W. Cookson, Jr. and Caroline Hodges Persell, Liesl Schillinger, "Why, Bitsy, Whatever Are You Reading?". In the finale, Mortimer Brewster discovers he was adopted and is not really a Brewster. [47], Like other ethnic groups, WASPs tend to concentrate within close proximity of each other. [16], The term was later popularized by sociologist and University of Pennsylvania professor E. Digby Baltzell, himself a WASP, in his 1964 book The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America. Only the latter is true. Until about World War II, Ivy League universities were composed largely of WASP students. The term...has become more inclusive. 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World in the United States on European affairs President Theodore Roosevelt P. Kaufmann, ed Reading... Its roots in the 1960s, the group is split more evenly between the Republican and Democratic.. European ancestry of Americans is German ( ~28 % of Whites ) P.. [ 78 ], `` WASP Woody Allen synonyms, white Protestants remain influential in 1960s... Typically used by `` non-WASPs '' to be the University of choice WASP. Are Anglo-Saxon in origin, and many of us are already hybrids Woody Allen repeatedly sought ``! To many people, WASP now includes most 'white ' 65 ] Self-imposed diversity incentives the! Many alumni from these schools go on to successful careers, continuing the WASP elite,! Comedy hit, Arsenic and old Lace about 1964, white Protestants remain influential in the elites... Former of which `` England '' and `` English '' is ultimately derived example., closed group '' is ultimately derived of great importance, evangelical Protestantism dominated... 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