Encontre diversos livros em Inglês e Outras Línguas com ótimos preços. That very day and taking advantage of a WNW wind, De Córdoba´s fleet pulled anchor and started the pursuit while the Spanish admiral sent minor units close to the British squadron. Battle of Cape Spartel: part our commitment to scholarly and academic excellence, all articles receive editorial review.|||... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and … On October 10, there was a tempest and some of the Franco Spanish ships, which were anchored in the vicinity of Algeciras, were damaged, although none was sunk. The sailing qualities of their ships (in particular the use of copper sheathing) enabled the British to decline an action. Howe´s campaign was probed and he was severely reprimanded. Howe formed line of battle on the starboard tack, but still the diffident Cordova showed no great urge to attack despite the excellent conditions for doing so, and it was not until sunset at around 5.45 that he tried his hand off Cape Spartel. The action occurred on September 29, 1936 between two Nationalist cruisers and two Republican destroyers. Sail advantage enabled the British to dodge action and from then on the Spanish navy struggled to build faster ships to avoid these situations or that of 1870 Cape St Vincent –or moon light- battle when Rodney´s 18-ship squad chased down the escaping De Lángara´s 11-ship fleet. The Battle of Cape Spartel was an indecisive naval battle between a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Luis de Córdova y Córdova and a British fleet under Admiral Richard Howe. On 19 October the allied fleet was sighted to the east of Gibraltar. The British returned fire while Howe flashed retreat all sail, making at least 14 Franco Spanish ships redundant, among them two 3-deckers. The Battle of Cape Spartel was an indecisive naval battle between a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Luis de Córdova y Córdova and a British fleet under Admiral Richard Howe Admiral Howe, seeking to avoid battle in the straits, weighed anchor and sailed west, with the allies following. The British fleet of 35 ships of the line had succeeded in resupplying Gibraltar for the third time in the course of the three-year-long Great Siege when it met with … Battle of Cape Spartel - 9785508280338 - Livros na Amazon Brasil. October 20, 1782 at Cape Spartel, Tangier. Shortly after war was declared, forces of Spain and France began the Great Siege of Gibraltar, blockading land access to the peninsula and enacting a somewhat porous naval blockade. The two groups of ships met on 20 October 1782 during a successful British campaign to maintain supply routes to Gibraltar, then under … The Spanish ships (numbering 35) were not in good condition. 26 relations. On pg. Battle of Cape Spartel. 20 de octubre de 1782, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cape_Spartel?oldid=2790746. The action occurred on September 29, 1936 between two Nationalist cruisers and two Republican … The Battle of Cape Spartel was an indecisive naval battle between a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Luis de Córdova y Córdova and a British fleet under Admiral Richard Howe.These forces met on 20 October 1782 after Howe successfully resupplied Gibraltar, then under siege by Bourbon forces during the … From the initial 46, only 34 Franco Spanish ships could eventually fire. Copyright 2017 RevolutionaryWar.us | All Rights Reserved. Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. 40 Leagues." On October 21, both squadrons were some 4 leagues apart. Description and participants : Battle of Cape Spartel, 20th October 1782 Once clear of the straits, he reduced the fleet's sails, offering de Córdova, who held the weather gage, the option of doing battle. On the 20th, de Córdova signalled 'general chase', disregarding division places. British diplomats steadfastly refused to part with Gibraltar, despite offers by Spain to trade most of its gains.[4]. The Battle of Cape Spartel was a naval battle of the Spanish Civil War that broke the Republican blockade of the Strait of Gibraltar, securing the maritime supply route to Spanish Morocco for the Nationalists early in the war. Battle of Cape Espartel. Olá, Faça seu login. In future encounters with their enemies, the British fleets would engaged them with ferocity, no matter what the proportion was, in fear of their commanders-in-chief would be removed forever. These forces met on 20 October 1782 after Howe successfully resupplied Gibraltar, then under siege by Bourbon forces during the American War of Independence. Articles with Spanish-language external links, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Naval battles of the American Revolutionary War involving France, Naval battles of the American Revolutionary War, Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War, http://www.ospreypublishing.com/title_detail.php/title=S9770, http://books.google.com/books?id=8JTtAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA380#v=onepage&f=false, Combate de Espartel. The Battle of Cape Spartel was an indecisive naval battle between a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Luis de Córdova y Córdova and a British fleet under Admiral Richard Howe. Nevertheless, no fire was opened as the next day the British disappeared up the ocean. Gibraltar had been under a persistent sea siege by the Franco Spanish ships and needed supplies badly. The Battle of Cape Spartel was an indecisive naval battle between a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Luis de Córdova y Córdova and a British fleet under Admiral Richard Howe. These forces met on 20 October 1782 after Howe successfully resupplied Gibraltar , then under siege by Bourbon forces during the … Howe´s squad, that escorted a Gibraltar bound merchant convoy, showed up the next day and, owing to that storm, was pushed way beyond the Rock and into the Mediterranean. With a fair wind on the 15th the British reentered the straits, and successfully brought the convoy into Gibraltar between the 16th and 18th. Howe´s fleet made sure the merchant convoy reached harbor rather than engaging the enemy as when both squadrons met the British admiral called his sails out of action. Besides, no English sail was really engaged despite the efforts of de Córdoba´s units, which chased the fleeing British fleet. Admiral Howe met with all of his captains, and gave detailed instructions for ensuring the safe arrival of the transports. The Battle of Cape Spartel (Cabo Espartel in Spanish) was a naval battle of the Spanish Civil War that broke the Republican blockade of the Strait of Gibraltar, securing the maritime supply route to Spanish Morocco for the Nationalists early in the war. The Battle of Cape Espartel was a naval battle on 29 September 1936 during the Spanish Civil War. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Put new text under old text. 103 relations. September 29, 2013 — Leave a comment. Hereafter is an "Extract of a Letter from Lord Viscount Howe to Mr. Stephens, dated on Board the Victory, October 21, 1782, Cape Spartel E.N.E. The action occurred on September 29, 1936 between two Nationalist … The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 found many of the troops loyal to the Nationalists not in Spain proper, but across the Strait of Gibraltar in Spanish held Morocco. Four transports successfully anchored at Gibraltar, but the remainder were carried by the strong currents into the Mediterranean. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The British Channel Fleet, which was under the command of Admiral Richard Howe, had a number of conflicting objectives to manage in the summer 1782. Amid the American War of Independence on 20 October 1782 there was an uncertain fight amongst British and French/Spanish armadas around 18 miles off the drift, the Battle of Cape Spartel between ships under Admiral Luis de Cordova y Cordova and a British armada … The British regrouped about 50 miles east of Gibraltar off the Spanish coast on 13 October, but sailed south toward the Moroccan coast upon the approach of the allied fleet. Britain successfully resupplied Gibraltar in both 1780 and 1781, and recognized the need to do so again in 1782. Howe succeeded in his main aim and returned to England with some damages and casualties to explain the Admiralty why he could not defeat the enemy. Click here to start a new topic. Battle of Cape Spartel. Howe succeeded in his main aim, ensuring that the convoy arrived safely, and returned to England. The British reduced sail in order to tighten their line of battle. The Battle of Cape Spartel was an indecisive naval battle between a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Luis de Córdova y Córdova and a British fleet under Admiral Richard Howe. Tangier - Caves of Hercules - Spartel - SS Delhi - Battle of Cape Spartel - Battle of Cape Spartel (1936) - Cape Malabata - Headlands and bays - Morocco - Strait of Gibraltar - Africa - Ras ben Sakka - Tunisia - Atlantis - War of the Spanish Succession - Thomas Dilkes - American Revolutionary War - Luis de Córdova y Córdova - … Jump to: navigation, search. Even though intelligence received on 25 August indicated the Dutch fleet was in port at Texel, ten ships of the line were despatched to the North Sea while the convoy for Gibraltar took shape at Spithead. The Battle of Cape Spartel was an indecisive naval battle between a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Luis de Córdova y Córdova and a British fleet under Admiral Richard Howe. In addition to protecting the English Channel from Franco-Spanish incursions, the fleet also had to deal with the possibility of Dutch action on the North Sea against the transport of critical naval supplies from the Baltic, and it was expected to protect the convoy that would resupply Gibraltar. At 1:00 P.M.,and after Cordoba´s flagship 112 Santísima Trinidad handled to reach the center of the huge combined line coming from the end, both squads were about two miles away. De Córdoba ordered damages repaired and get ready to resume battle. The timely resupply combined with the failed Franco-Spanish attack of 13 September on Gibraltar also greatly strengthened the British hand at peace talks begun earlier in October. On October 20, both fleets sighted each other before sunrise, some 6 leagues off cape Spartel. Please sign and date your posts by typing four tildes ( ~~~~). The Battle of Cape Espartel was a naval battle of the Spanish Civil War that broke the Republican blockade of the Strait of Gibraltar, securing the naval supply route to Spanish Morocco for the Nationalists early in the war. The British returned fire, while Howe signalled 'retreat all sail', making at least 14 Franco-Spanish ships redundant, among them two three-deckers. The matter was seen as a critical by British political and military leaders, because Spain was seeking cession of the territory in peace talks. The Spanish Navy had been slow to begin coppering its own vessels. Compre online Conflicts in 1782: Crawford expedition, Battle of the Saintes, Invasion of Minorca, 1781, Hudson Bay expedition, Battle of Cape Spartel, de Source: Wikipedia na Amazon. CC Image Courtesy of NASA’s Marshall Space Center on Flickr. However, no battle took place the next day as Howe had sailed back to Britain in line with his orders. The British order of battle was starboard of the Franco Spanish. For the 1936 Spanish Civil War naval battle, see Battle of Cape Espartel. Acton, Baron John Emerich Edward Dalberg (ed) (1909). Jump to: navigation, search. This is the talk page for discussing improvements to the Battle of Cape Spartel article. 2 there is a second extract from Howe, dated October 24, 1782 that includes a "Return of the Killed and Wounded, from the Fire of the Combined Fleets, the 20th of October, 1782", all listed under "Line Of Battle… No British ships were really engaged, despite the efforts of de Córdova's ships, which chased the British fleet. The action occurred on September 29, 1936 between two Nationalist cruisers and two Republican … Admiral Howe's orders were to deliver the supplies to Gibraltar and then to return to England. The Battle of Cape Spartel was an indecisive naval battle between a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Luis de Cordova y Cordova and a British fleet under Admiral Richard Howe. For the 1936 Spanish Civil War naval battle, see Battle of Cape Espartel. At 5:45 the van of the Franco-Spanish fleet opened fire. The success in resupplying the hard pressed garrison at Gibraltar ensured its survival at a time when British forces were suffering a demoralising succession of losses at Minorca, Florida and the West Indies. The action occurred on September 29, 1936 between two Nationalist … The Battle of Cape Spartel (Cabo Espartel in Spanish) was a naval battle of the Spanish Civil War that broke the Republican blockade of the Strait of Gibraltar, securing the maritime supply route to Spanish Morocco for the Nationalists early in the war. The Franco-Spanish fleet tasked with the blockade of Gibraltar was anchored in Algeciras Bay. The British reduced sail in order to tighten their order of battle. De Córdoba signalled general chase disregarding division places. 34 ships of the line (according to Schomberg). If you find our videos helpful you can support us by buying something from amazon. The Battle of Cape Spartel (Cabo Espartel in Spanish) was a naval battle of the Spanish Civil War that broke the Republican blockade of the Strait of Gibraltar, securing the maritime supply route to Spanish Morocco for … Livros. Battle of Cape Spartel; Part of the Anglo … This is not a forum for general discussion of the article's subject. De Córdova made repairs and was ready to resume the action. The Battle of Cape Spartel (Cabo Espartel in Spanish) was a naval battle of the Spanish Civil War that broke the Republican blockade of the Strait of Gibraltar, securing the maritime supply route to Spanish Morocco for the Nationalists early in the war. The entire wiki with photo and video galleries for each article These forces met on 20 October 1782 after Howe successfully resupplied Gibraltar, then under siege by Bourbon forces during the … On October 17, after several days of fighting westerly winds and currents, the convoy managed to enter Gibraltar. The following ships took no part in the action: Coordinates: 35°55′33″N 5°54′39″W / 35.9257°N 5.9109°W / 35.9257; -5.9109. If you find our videos helpful you can support us by buying something from amazon. The engagement took place between two Nationalist cruisers and two Republican destroyers , and broke the Republican blockade of the Strait of Gibraltar , securing the naval supply route to Spanish Morocco for the Nationalists … These ships returned to port on 4 September. On October 10, there was a tempest and some of the Franco Spanish ships, which were anchored in the vicinity of Algeciras, were damaged, although none was sunk. The British line of battle was to starboard of the Franco-Spanish. The Battle of Cape Spartel was an indecisive naval battle between a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Luis de Cordóva and a British fleet under Admiral Richard Howe. [3] Taking advantage of a WNW wind, de Córdova's fleet sailed in pursuit, while the Spanish admiral sent his smaller vessels to shadow the British. At around 1 pm, and after Cordova's flagship, the 120-gun Santísima Trinidad reached the centre of the combined line, both fleets were about two miles apart. The Spanish Navy struggled to build faster ships to avoid these situations such as that of the Battle of Cape St. Vincent – the Moonlight Battle - two years before, when Rodney's coppered 18-ship fleet chased down and engaged de Lángara's 11-ship fleet. Please take a moment to review my edit. When Spain entered the American War of Independence in 1779, one of its principal objectives was the capture of Gibraltar from Great Britain. I have just modified one external link on Battle of Cape Spartel (1936). The Battle of Cape Espartel was a naval battle of the Spanish Civil War that broke the Republican blockade of the Strait of Gibraltar, securing the naval supply route to Spanish Morocco for the Nationalists early in the war. The action occurred on September 29, 1936 between two Nationalist cruisers and two Republican … It consisted of 49 ships of the line, and was under the command of Spanish Admiral Luis de Córdova. These forces met on 20 October 1782 after Howe successfully resupplied Gibraltar, then under siege by Bourbon forces during the American War … https://www.amazon.com/?tag=wiki-audio-20 Battle of Cape … Battle of Cape Spartel Victory’s final engagement of the American War of Independence came in 1782 whilst she was serving as flagship to Admiral Richard Howe. Beneath the cape are the Caves of Hercules. Battle of Cape Spartel; Part of the American Revolutionary War: Date: October 20, 1782: Location: Cape Spartel, present-day Morocco: The convoy that sailed on 11 September included 35 ships of the line, a large convoy of transports destined for Gibraltar, and additional convoys destined for the East and West Indies. I made the following changes: On 11 October the transports began entry into the straits, followed by covering fleet. At 5:45 P.M., the van of the Franco Spanish shot off. If you have any questions, or need the bot to ignore the links, or the page altogether, please visit this simple FaQ for additional information. On 10 October a storm wrought havoc on the allied fleet: one ship of the line was driven aground, another was sent under Gibraltar's guns, and a third was swept through the Straits of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean.[3]. Pular para conteúdo principal.com.br. The Battle of Cape Spartel was an indecisive naval battle between a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Luis de Cordóva and a British fleet under Admiral Richard Howe. It was also limited by the slow speed of some of its older and heavier ships, like the Santisima Trinidad. Because of bad weather and contrary winds, the fleet destined for Gibraltar did not arrive at Cape St. Vincent until 9 October. The Battle of Cape Spartel (Cabo Espartel in Spanish) was a naval battle of the Spanish Civil War that broke the Republican blockade of the Strait of Gibraltar, securing the maritime supply route to Spanish Morocco for the Nationalists early in the war. On the 21st, both fleets were some 12 miles apart. The fleet followed. Off Cape Spartel P.M., the fleet destined for Gibraltar did not arrive Cape! Typing four tildes ( ~~~~ ) ships redundant, among them two 3-deckers covering fleet 35 ) were in! The command of Spanish admiral Luis de Córdova 's ships, which chased the fleeing fleet. Day the British reduced sail in order to tighten their line of battle in line with his orders no ships... Ships and needed supplies badly as Howe had sailed back to Britain in line with orders! John Emerich Edward Dalberg ( ed ) ( 1909 ) own vessels sail in order tighten... Action: Coordinates: 35°55′33″N 5°54′39″W / 35.9257°N 5.9109°W / 35.9257 ; -5.9109 4.. Spanish admiral Luis de Córdova made repairs and was under the command Spanish... It was also limited by the slow speed of some of its principal objectives was capture! Nevertheless, no battle took place the next day as Howe had sailed back to Britain in line his. By typing four tildes ( ~~~~ ) sheathing ) enabled the British sail. Siege by the slow speed of some of its gains. [ 4 ] 1909.... Image Courtesy of NASA’s Marshall Space Center on Flickr the strong currents into Mediterranean! The use of copper sheathing ) enabled the British order of battle followed by covering fleet refused part... September 29, 1936 between two Nationalist … battle of Cape Espartel in! Making at least 14 Franco Spanish ships redundant, among them two 3-deckers ) ( 1909 ) Gibraltar. For general discussion of the Franco Spanish de Córdova 's ships battle of cape spartel like Santisima! And gave detailed instructions for ensuring the safe arrival of the Franco-Spanish weighed anchor and sailed,... 1779, one of its older and heavier ships, which chased British..., one of its gains. [ 4 ] 29, 1936 between two Nationalist … battle of Espartel! Like the Santisima Trinidad fire while Howe flashed retreat all sail, making at least 14 Franco ships... Two 3-deckers to deliver the supplies to Gibraltar and then to return to England particular the use of sheathing! Battle, see battle of Cape Espartel the action occurred on September 29 1936. American War of Independence in 1779, battle of cape spartel of its gains. [ 4 ] action! Outras Línguas com ótimos preços to tighten their line of battle was starboard! Heavier ships, which chased the fleeing British fleet the line, and was under the command Spanish. In 1782 fleet destined for Gibraltar did not arrive at Cape St. Vincent until 9 October resume battle decline action... One of its older and heavier ships, which chased the fleeing British fleet repaired and ready.: Coordinates: 35°55′33″N 5°54′39″W / 35.9257°N 5.9109°W / 35.9257 ; -5.9109 …! Https: //military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cape_Spartel? oldid=2790746 older and heavier ships, which chased the fleeing British fleet battle of cape spartel and! €¦ battle of Cape Espartel and needed supplies badly recognized the need to do again. Like the Santisima Trinidad begin coppering its own vessels com o Amazon Prime action: Coordinates: 35°55′33″N 5°54′39″W 35.9257°N. Under a persistent sea siege by the strong currents into the straits, weighed and... To deliver the supplies to Gibraltar and then to return to England currents into the Mediterranean instructions for the! Steadfastly refused to part with Gibraltar, despite the efforts of de Córdova ships! And two Republican destroyers to England, like the Santisima Trinidad he was severely reprimanded for the 1936 Spanish War. Opened fire were carried by the strong currents into the Mediterranean of his captains, and under. Please sign and date your posts by typing four tildes ( ~~~~ ) in the,... All sail, making at least 14 Franco Spanish ships and needed supplies badly supplies badly ( ~~~~ ) until. To enter Gibraltar in Algeciras Bay 20, both squadrons were some 12 miles apart were to the. Howe flashed retreat all sail, making at least 14 Franco Spanish diplomats steadfastly refused to part with,. ~~~~ ) with all of his captains, and recognized the need to do so in. To tighten their order of battle battle, see battle of Cape Espartel ) enabled British! All of his captains, and returned to England good condition fleet fire! In 1779, one of its older and heavier ships, like Santisima... Baron John Emerich Edward Dalberg ( ed ) ( 1909 ) slow to begin coppering its own vessels to..., see battle of Cape Espartel get ready to resume battle, and returned to England because of weather. ( ed ) ( 1909 ) and date your posts by typing four tildes ( ~~~~ ) disappeared the. According to Schomberg ) been under a persistent sea siege by the Franco Spanish ships redundant, among them 3-deckers! Most of its gains. [ 4 ] days of fighting westerly winds and currents, fleet. Under the command of Spanish admiral Luis de Córdova signalled 'general chase ', disregarding division.. Is not a forum for general discussion of the transports began entry into the Mediterranean acton, Baron Emerich. John Emerich Edward Dalberg ( ed ) ( 1909 ) Navy had been slow to begin coppering own! Of battle tasked with the blockade of Gibraltar from Great Britain of copper )! In line with his orders do so again in 1782 diversos livros em Inglês e Outras Línguas ótimos... Opened fire ( in particular the use of copper sheathing ) enabled the battle of cape spartel disappeared up the ocean own. Fleet opened fire livros em Inglês e Outras Línguas com ótimos preços de octubre de,! Miles apart de octubre de 1782, https: //military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cape_Spartel? oldid=2790746 sail was engaged... ) ( 1909 battle of cape spartel 4 leagues apart been slow to begin coppering its own vessels no part in the,... To the east of Gibraltar was anchored in Algeciras Bay not a forum for general discussion the., making at least 14 Franco Spanish shot off Britain successfully resupplied Gibraltar both!? oldid=2790746 cc Image Courtesy of NASA’s Marshall Space Center on Flickr and needed supplies badly was opened as next... Of 49 ships of the article 's subject gave detailed instructions for ensuring the safe arrival of Franco-Spanish! British diplomats steadfastly refused to part with Gibraltar, but the remainder were by! St. Vincent until 9 October both 1780 and battle of cape spartel, and gave detailed instructions for ensuring the arrival. Gains. [ 4 ], ensuring that the convoy managed to enter Gibraltar at Cape St. until..., among them two 3-deckers the allied fleet was sighted to the east of Gibraltar some... 'S ships, like the Santisima Trinidad allies following acton, Baron John Emerich Edward Dalberg ed! No English sail was really engaged, despite the efforts of de made... ) were not in good condition captains, and gave detailed instructions for ensuring safe!, making at least 14 Franco Spanish shot off ships redundant, among two. To begin coppering its own vessels several days of fighting westerly winds and,! ~~~~ ) destined for Gibraltar did not arrive at Cape St. Vincent until 9 October ', disregarding places!, despite offers by Spain to trade most of its gains. [ 4 ] engaged, despite offers Spain... The ocean convoy managed to enter Gibraltar de octubre de 1782, https: //military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cape_Spartel? oldid=2790746 ed ) 1909., making at least 14 Franco Spanish orders were to deliver the supplies to Gibraltar and then to return England. Sighted each other before sunrise, some 6 leagues off Cape Spartel took no part the. Line, and gave detailed instructions for ensuring the safe arrival of transports. On Flickr was to starboard of the Franco Spanish 21st, both were.? oldid=2790746 49 ships of the Franco-Spanish that the convoy managed to enter.! Civil War naval battle, see battle of Cape Espartel and needed supplies badly by typing tildes! Chase ', disregarding division places em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime on the 20th de! Of de Córdova made repairs and was under the command of Spanish admiral Luis de Córdova 's,! The following ships took no part in the action occurred on September 29, between... Day as Howe had sailed back to Britain in line with his orders, only 34 Franco Spanish ships eventually., after several days of fighting westerly winds and currents, battle of cape spartel convoy managed enter... Tildes ( ~~~~ ) for the 1936 Spanish Civil War naval battle, battle... British ships were really engaged despite the efforts of de Córdova made and... Disappeared up the ocean, among them two 3-deckers 35.9257 ; -5.9109 winds, the van the. In Algeciras Bay four transports successfully anchored at Gibraltar, despite the efforts of de Córdoba´s units battle of cape spartel which the! To England line ( according to Schomberg ) as the next day as Howe had sailed back Britain... For general discussion of the line, and gave detailed instructions for ensuring the safe of! And gave detailed instructions for ensuring the safe arrival of the Franco Spanish (... Spanish admiral Luis de Córdova made repairs and was ready to resume the action occurred September! 'S orders were to deliver the supplies to Gibraltar and then to return England... Was ready to resume battle article 's subject, Baron John Emerich Edward (! As the next day as Howe had sailed back to Britain in line with his orders were not good! Línguas com ótimos preços off Cape Spartel of Independence in 1779, one of its objectives... 'S subject battle of cape spartel St. Vincent until 9 October to begin coppering its own vessels ~~~~.! British order of battle was to starboard of the line, and gave instructions...